The Constitutional Referendum and Popular Consultation in Ecuador 2018
The Constitutional Referendum and Popular Consultation in Ecuador 2018 was an electoral process in which citizens were asked about the possibility of reforming the constitution and other issues of national interest. At the end of 2017, President Lenin Moreno announced the consultation and invited interested citizens to send questions for analysis and possible incorporation. The voting consisted of seven questions for the approval or rejection by the citizenship, on the topics of corruption, reelection, participation, sexual crimes against girls, boys and adolescents, lands and natural protected areas. The vote achieved the participation of 82.1% of Ecuadorians, in Ecuador voting is compulsory for all citizens eligible to the National Electoral Board and its breach is subject to economic sanctions.. The "Yes" vote won in all questions, both in the referendum and in the consultation.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- democratic innovation yields a binding decision